mg娱乐游戏平台耶鲁|政治哲学2-应该固守内心,还是遵循法律?(双语)

正文是耶鲁政治哲学导论第二征收笔记。课中,Smith教授继续带对《申辩篇》的解读,并为《克里和篇》中了相反的看法来开展对比,进而讨论人应有恪守自己之法规,还是遵循国家的法律?苏格拉底应该被容忍么?言论自由是无与伦比好之呢?等等深刻问题。

一、How many of you believe Socrates is innocent and should be
acquitted?

你们中生出多少人苏格拉底是无辜的,应该无罪开释?

How many of you believe he is guity and more or less got what he
deserved?

你们中起微人认为他罪有应得?

耶鲁的学员大部分支撑苏格拉底对立城邦,但教学也提出,苏格拉底之答辩是针对性城邦无害的呢?城邦应该容忍么?事实上也,苟觉得苏格拉底无罪,反而是轻了苏格拉底底反驳对城邦的影响,苏格拉底的影响力是伟的,而这种影响是颠覆性、革命性的!

二、What it is to be a citizen?

民之概念为何?

S opposes the traditional,you might say Homeric conception,of the
citizen,certain notions of citizen loyalty and patriotism,created,shaped
 by the poetic tradition going back to Homer.

苏氏反对传统的,荷马式的赤子概念,即出于来自自荷马的诗教传统所塑造出的全民忠诚心及爱国精神。

He wants to replace that with a new kind of rational
citizenship,philosophical citizenship,which relies on one’s own powers
of independent reason and judgment and argument.

外惦记使因为相同种植时的心劲之、达观的人民社会代表,人们因我独立展开推理、判断和理论。

苏格拉底提出的理性之平民影响十分深远,与本国历史上的“愚民政策”截然不同,苏格拉底希望全民会考虑,自我检查,对人事物有和好之判断。

唯独这种判断与法规之论断发生冲突时,应该怎么开吗?

三、S says that he has spent his entire life pursuing private matters
rather than pubulic ones,and has deliberately avoided pubulic
issues,issues of politics.

苏氏称自己终其一生都在追求私人事件而无公共事务,甚至刻意躲避公共问题,诸如政治。

That raises a question.How can any kind of citizenship be devoted just
to private matters and not public?Citizenship seems to require the
public sphere. 

即时虽造成一个题材。怎么可能发生才注意私人事件如忽略公共事务的百姓社会?公民社会如同便应有生出国有领域。

When S says that,he means that he has pursued a policy ,let’s call it
“the principled abstience from pubulic life.

苏格拉底这么说,其实是恃他径直于追一致种植,可以称之为“与公生活稳定疏离”的方针。

S has abstained from participation in the collective actions of the
city。

苏氏自我弃绝于城邦的公家活动受到。

His own motto is “Do no harm.”,and to do no harm,he has required of
himself a kind of principled abstention from pubulic life.

外的语录是未损伤。为了成功无误,他求自己稳定的疏离公共生活。

He has refused to join in the judgment ot condemn and execute the ten
Athenian generals,who had failed to collect the corpses of the men lost
in a particular battle during the Peloponnesian War.

外都拒绝在谴责和处决十名叫雅典将军之审判,他们未能动用回在伯罗奔尼撒战役中战死的官兵们的遗体。

He has refused to participate in an arrest of a man who was wanted by
the Thirty Tyrants.

他早已拒绝到三十假借主要求的针对一个人口之办案。

S’s point is that his own individual moral integrity stands an a kind of
litmus test.

苏氏的见是:他尊重的私房道德经得起任何查看。

酷明确,申辩篇被的苏格拉底看自己当恪守自己之德行判断,内心法律,而无是言听计从城邦。这就提出下的题目:

四、Can a citizen put his own conscience above the law as S seems to
do?

平民是否会像苏氏那样,将自身的德行凌驾于法律之上?

This is a problem that vexes Hobbes.Wether an individual can somehow
put their own sense of conscience or moral integrity even above the law?

立刻是一个让霍布斯为的劳的题材:个人是不是好拿我的道义感或道德感置于法之上?

What would a community of Socratic citizens look like?Each one picking
and choosing the laws or the rules to obey or not to follow.

苏格拉底式的全员社会是怎样吗?人人自己选择法律,决定遵守还是未守。

S is so concerned with his individual,his private moral integrity.He
says that he will not dirty his hands with public life.

苏格拉底非常揪心他私的德行正直,他扬言无情愿与公共生活,以免为脏双手。

Machiavelli takes very seriously the question of wether or not
politics,political life requires one to dirty his hands in the world.

马基雅维利非常关爱这同样题目:法政和政治生活是否会面来脏参与者的手?

S seems to be in some respects an example of what Hegel in the
nineteenth century described as a “beatiful soul”,he used that term
ironically.

苏格拉底多少像是十九世纪黑格尔所描述的“漂亮的魂”那么,那是讽刺之用词。

That is some one who puts their own private moral incorruptibility above
all else.

这个词靠那些将民用道德廉洁置于一切之上的人数。

我们见面禁不住的想到许由,尧想只要禅让全世界为他,许由却嫌脏了耳朵。中国史及欣赏推崇许由这样的隐士,但自却看,许由是一个无图的人数,他不如尧舜为国民做的贡献。他正是黑格尔说的这种美好的神魄,虽然可以,但可不着边际的类泡。

五、S tries to defend his point of view by arguing that his policy of
abstinence actually carries impotant benefits to the city.

苏格拉底意欲证实自己的疏离策略其实会也城邦带来显著好处,以之来吧友好之意辩解。

He defines himself as a gadfly,who improves the quality of life in the
city.

他称好是牛虻,改善了城邦的生品质。

S writes,”If you kill me, you will not easily discover another of my
sort,who has simply been set upon the city by the God as though upon a
great and well-born horse who is rather sluggish because of his great
size,and needs to be awakend by some gadfly.Just so in fact the god
seems to have set me upon the city as someone of this sort.I awaken and
persuade and reproach each one of you and I do not stop settling down
everywhere upon you the whole day.”

苏格拉底说:“如果你们好了本人,将未极端容易发现自这种人。这由上帝拣选的城邦好像一匹优良的高足为该庞大而呆,因而需要牛虻的叮咬使该警醒。依次实据观来,上帝似已入选我,作为同城邦等联名的食指。自提醒、说服并指责诸位,处处与你们见相反,终日如此。”

S declares himself  not only to be the gift of the god who is
brought,but also a great benefactor of the city.His example of
individual moral conscience brings with it great public benefits.

苏格拉底不仅宣城自己是上帝赐予下之人情,更是城邦的恩人。他当个体道德感的模范,给公众带来巨大好处。

六、It is not on his behalf,he tells the audience,but yours,his fellow
citizens’,that he does what he does.

外报告听众,那不是为着他协调,而是他们,他的亲生们,才这么做的。

And furthermore he claims that he has no choice in the matter.This is
not something he has chosen to do,he has been commanded to do this.

外声称自己艰难。并非他举行这选择,而是吃了(神之)指示。

He seems to envelope himself and his way of life with a kind of
religious imagery.He envelopes his conception of citizenship within this
religious language.

外似乎用协调同生活方法包裹于同栽宗教意象当中,将团结对人民社会的定义打包上教般的言语。

七、What could be more ludicrous S declaring himself or anyone
declaring themselves to be a gift of the divine.

还有呀比苏格拉底自称要任何人自称是天赐恩典更加荒唐?

Should S be tolerated?Would a good society tolerate S?

苏格拉底许为容忍也?一个良的社会能够忍受苏格拉底么?

How far should freedom of speech be tolerated?

言论自由的忍受界限是略?

S demands that the Athenians change not simply this or that aspect of
their policy,but he demands nothing less than a drastic,even
revolutionary change in their civic life,in their civic culture.

苏格拉底不是单独要求雅典口转移其政策备受的一对十足观点,而是重的,甚至是革命性的更改其人民生活以及百姓文化。

He tells his fellows citizens that their lives are not worth living,only
the examined life is worth living.

他报告同胞们,他们之人命毫无价值,只有经过检查的人生才出价。

八、The Crito presents the city’s case,makes the case for the dignity
of the laws.

克里和篇展现了城邦的论点,即法律的庄严。

Crito is named for a friend and disciple of S,who at the outset of the
dialogue is sitting as a watchful guardian over his mentor.He urges S to
allow him to help him escape.

克里及篇得称于苏格拉底的爱侣,也是那个教徒克里和。他在对话之初便由衷守护在即员良师益友,力劝苏接受外的提携逃脱。

But S says,No state can exist without rules.The first rule of any
state is the rule that citizens are not free to set aside the rules,to
choose among them which ones to obey and to disobey.

只是苏却说,国家不可无法纪。任何国家的率先漫长法律永远是平民免可知随便之逍遥法外,自由选择法律来顺从或对抗。

To question or disobey a single law is tantamount to destroying the
authority of the law.

质疑还是对抗一久法律,等于摧毁法律的布满高贵。

We are what we are,because of the power and authority of the laws,the
customs,the traditions,the culture that has shaped us.

咱们用存在,是以那些培训我们的法网、习俗、传统、文化的能力及高贵。

The laws have begat us.

法规促成了俺们的有。

九、Why does S exhibit such proud defiance and independence of the
laws in the Apology and such total,even kind of mouse-like acquiescence
to the laws in the Crito?

干什么苏格拉底单方面在自辩篇被展现了自豪之抗,独立于法之外,一方面在克里暨篇被可又鼠辈一般的默认了一切王法。

 The Apology and  the Crito represent a tension between two more or less
permanent and irreconcilable moral codes.

力排众议篇和克里以及篇表现来同样栽张力,这种张力是于个别种植可以说凡是稳定且无法排解的道德规范间。

The one represent by S regards reason,that is to say the sovereign
reason of the individual as the highest possible authority.

一律栽是苏所代表的心劲,即个体主权理性是参天的也许大。

It is the philosopher’s reliance on his own reason that frees him from
the dangerous authority of the state,and safeguards the individual from
complicity in the injustice and evils that seem to be a necessary part
of political life.

哲学家凭自己的心劲而好远离危险的国大,并防御人们不跟不义及邪恶与流合污,那宛如就化作政治生活的画龙点睛部分。

The other moral code is represented by the speech of the laws where it
is the laws of the community,its oldest and deepest beliefs and
institutions,its constitutions,its regime,that are fundamentally
obligatory on the individual,and even take priority over the individual.

外一样种植道德规范是社会法律所表示的观。服从那些最古老、深沉的信以及制度、宪法和政体,是每人公民之主干义务,凌驾于民用之上。

十、由此,苏格拉底供于咱片只选择

是当哲学家,将自己之沉思凌驾于律,还是作为百姓,服从那些基本义务。

苏格拉底显然是前者。

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